IT Questions and Answers :)

Friday, February 16, 2018

Which of the following is NOT a PowerShell comparison operator type?

Which of the following is NOT a PowerShell comparison operator type?

  • Matching
  • Containment
  • Replacement
  • Assignment
 
 
Which of the following is NOT a PowerShell comparison operator type?

EXPLANATION

Comparison operators are used in PowerShell to compare values. There are four types of operators: equality, matching, containment, and replacement. The one big gotcha in PowerShell has to do with syntax: rather than using traditional comparison operators like < or > PowerShell uses -lt or -gt to perform comparisons.

SOURCE

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/module/microsoft.powershell.core/about/about_comparison_operators?view=powershell-5.1
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Thursday, February 15, 2018

Two organizations are partnering and sharing systems. Which of the following would outline how the shared systems interface?

Two organizations are partnering and sharing systems. Which of the following would outline how the shared systems interface?

  • BPA
  • SLA
  • ISA
  • ROA 

 
Two organizations are partnering and sharing systems. Which of the following would outline how the shared systems interface?

EXPLANATION

An interconnection security agreement (ISA) documents the technical requirements of a connection between organizations, such as the basic components, methods and levels of interconnectivity, and potential security risks.
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Wednesday, February 14, 2018

You need to encrypt and compress your backups before replicating them off site. Which is best practice, compress then encrypt, or encrypt then compress?

You need to encrypt and compress your backups before replicating them off site. Which is best practice, compress then encrypt, or encrypt then compress?

  • Neither!
  • Encrypt first!
  • Doesn't matter!
  • Compress first! 
 
You need to encrypt and compress your backups before replicating them off site. Which is best practice, compress then encrypt, or encrypt then compress?

EXPLANATION

If you encrypt the data first, it will be randomized and unintelligible by your compression application which need to compress the data in a logical format.  
Compressing then encrypting is the way to go.

SOURCE

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4676095/when-compressing-and-encrypting-should-i-compress-first-or-encrypt-first 
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Tuesday, February 13, 2018

For every unique constraint on a column, SQL server will create which of the following?

For every unique constraint on a column, SQL server will create which of the following?

  • An entry for that column
  • A non-clustered index for that column
  • A clustered index for that column
  • A filtered index 

 
For every unique constraint on a column, SQL server will create which of the following?

EXPLANATION

For every unique constraint on a column, SQL server creates a non-clustered index. A non-clustered index has a structure separate from the data rows. It contains non-clustered index key values and each key value entry has a pointer to the data row that contains the key value.

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Unix time is the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on what date?

Unix time is the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on what date?

  • Saturday, January 1, 2000
  • Sunday, December 28, 1969
  • Thursday, January 1, 1970
  • Monday, January 1, 1900 

 
Unix time is the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on what date?

EXPLANATION

Unix time counts the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 UTC on January 1, 1970. It is used in Unix-like operating systems and file formats. Because it doesn't deal with leap seconds, it is not a true representation of UTC. Check out Unix time for yourself by typing "date +%s" on the command line.

Fun fact: December 28, 1969, is Linus Torvalds' birthday, which makes him older than Unix.

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Saturday, February 10, 2018

Thursday, February 8, 2018

What Azure BGP Private ASN are reserved?

What Azure BGP Private ASN are reserved?

  • 65515, 65517, 65518, 65519, 65520
  • 54000, 54100, 54200, 54300, 54400
  • 60001, 60002, 60003, 60004, 60005
  • 67715, 67717, 67718, 67719, 67720 

 
What Azure BGP Private ASN are reserved?

EXPLANATION

Private and Public Azure ASN's can be foudn here:
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/vpn-gateway/vpn-gateway-bgp-overview

SOURCE

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/vpn-gateway/vpn-gateway-bgp-overview
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Wednesday, February 7, 2018

Which of the following standards relates to a video compression standard?

Which of the following standards relates to a video compression standard?

  • G.711
  • G.729
  • H.264
  • H.323 

Which of the following standards relates to a video compression standard?

H.264 is an industry standard for video compression, the process of converting digital video into a format that takes up less capacity when it is stored or transmitted. Video compression (or video coding) is an essential technology for applications such as digital television, DVD-Video, mobile TV, video conferencing and internet video streaming.

SOURCE

https://www.vcodex.com/h264-resources/
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Tuesday, February 6, 2018

In VMware ESXi, when expanding a virtual disk, which of the follwing should not exist?

In VMware ESXi, when expanding a virtual disk, which of the follwing should not exist?

  • A new virtual machine
  • Backup
  • Snapshots
  • Available space 

 
In VMware ESXi, when expanding a virtual disk, which of the follwing should not exist?

EXPLANATION


The Prerequisites for expanding a virtual disk are:

■ Power off the virtual machine.
■ Verify that the virtual disk is not mapped or mounted. You cannot expand a virtual disk while it is mapped or mounted.
■ Verify that the virtual machine has no snapshots.
■ Verify that the virtual machine is not a linked clone or the parent of a linked clone.

SOURCE

https://pubs.vmware.com/workstation-9/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.vmware.ws.using.doc%2FGUID-73BEB4E6-A1B9-41F4-BA37-364C4B067AA8.html
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Monday, February 5, 2018

What does the x stand for in AGP 8x?

What does the x stand for in AGP 8x?

  • Times Graphic Speed
  • Times FSB Speed
  • Times CPU Speed
  • Times original AGP Speed 
 
 
What does the x stand for in AGP 8x?

EXPLANATION

AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) is a high-speed 32-bit port from Intel for attaching a display adapter to a PC. It provides a direct connection between the card and memory, and only one AGP slot is on the motherboard. AGP was introduced as a higher-speed alternative to PCI display adapters, and it freed a PCI slot for another peripheral device. The brown AGP slot is slightly shorter than the white PCI slot and is located about an inch farther back. AGP is superseded by PCI Express.
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Friday, February 2, 2018

What range of values does Hexadecimal use?

What range of values does Hexadecimal use?

  • 0-9 and A-F
  • 1-17
  • 0-16
  • 1-10 and A-E 

 
What range of values does Hexadecimal use?

EXPLANATION

In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F(or alternatively a, b, c, d, e, f) to represent values ten to fifteen.

SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexadecimal
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Thursday, February 1, 2018

Macro, Micro, Pico, Femto and Umbrella are all types of what?

Macro, Micro, Pico, Femto and Umbrella are all types of what?

  • Cell sizes in a GSM network
  • GSM filters
  • GSM interfaces
  • Uplink and downlink channels 

Macro, Micro, Pico, Femto and Umbrella are all types of what?

EXPLANATION

GSM mobile phone networks are "cellular," which means that mobile phones connect to it by nearest cell.
MACRO cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or larger building structures that are taller than an average roof-top level. Cell radius is typically from 1 up to 35 km.
MICRO cells are cells whose antenna height below average rooftop level and are typically used in urban areas. Size is from 400 m to 2 km. 
PICO cells are small cells whose diameter is only few dozen meters; they are used mainly in indoor applications.
UMBRELLA cells: A layer with micro cells is covered by at least one macro cell, and a micro cell can in turn cover several pico cells. A covering cell is called an umbrella cell.

SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_network
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Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Which of the following is a software program that uses the Secure Shell protocol to accept connections from remote computers?

Which of the following is a software program that uses the Secure Shell protocol to accept connections from remote computers?

  • LogMeIn
  • Remote desktop
  • Team viewer
  • SSH server 

 
Which of the following is a software program that uses the Secure Shell protocol to accept connections from remote computers?

EXPLANATION




A Secure Shell  (SSH) server is a software program that uses the SSH protocol to accept connections from remote computers. SFTP/SCP file transfers and remote terminal connections are popular use cases for an SSH server.
 
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Tuesday, January 30, 2018

Which of the following is not a requirement of an elastic system?

Which of the following is not a requirement of an elastic system?

  • CPU, GPU, RAM, storage availability
  • Provision/deprovision resources
  • Monitor resource usage
  • Leprechauns

 
Which of the following is not a requirement of an elastic system?

EXPLANATION

According to a paper from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, "Elasticity is the degree to which a system is able to adapt to workload changes by provisioning and deprovisioning resources in an autonomic manner, such that at each point in time the available resources match the current demand as closely as possible." https://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/HeKoRe2013-ICAC-Elasticity.pdf
Resources such as CPU cycles, RAM, and storage are all necessary to provision to a client account. What makes elasticity different from simply being scale-able is that systems can be automated to add or remove these resources pending the outcome of a monitoring routine. Generally speaking, an elastic system doesn't require a Leprechauns to operate.

SOURCE

https://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/HeKoRe2013-ICAC-Elasticity.pdf
 
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Which type of RAID configuration requires minimum six drives?

Which type of RAID configuration requires minimum six drives?

  • RAID 60 (RAID 6 + 0)
  • RAID 50 (RAID 5 + 0)
  • RAID 100 (RAID 10+0)
  • RAID 6 

 
Which type of RAID configuration requires minimum six drives?

EXPLANATION

RAID 50, also called RAID 5+0, combines the straight block-level striping of RAID 0 with the distributed parity of RAID 5.[3] As a RAID 0 array striped across RAID 5 elements, minimal RAID 50 configuration requires six drives.

SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nested_RAID_levels
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Friday, January 26, 2018

When it comes to associative memory, how does the memory locate the address of the data?

When it comes to associative memory, how does the memory locate the address of the data?

  • The address of the data is supplied by the users
  • The address of the data is generated by the CPU
  • The data are accessed sequentially
  • There is no need for an address, the data is used as an address 
 
When it comes to associative memory, how does the memory locate the address of the data?

EXPLANATION

Associative memory is memory capable of determining whether a given datum (the search word) is contained in one of its addresses or locations. Associative memory  is also referred to as content-addressable memory.
Unlike standard computer memory (random access memory or RAM) in which the user supplies a memory address and the RAM returns the data word stored at that address, associative memory is designed such that the user supplies a data word and the computer searches its entire memory to see if that data word is stored anywhere in it.
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Thursday, January 25, 2018

What is the non-linear function that made DES cryptography so strong?

What is the non-linear function that made DES cryptography so strong?

  • Trick question, DES is fully linear
  • Swapping 4 bytes (left and right) after every round
  • Expansion & Contraction algorithms
  • 16 rounds of S-Box lookups 
 
What is the non-linear function that made DES cryptography so strong?

EXPLANATION

The genius of Horst Feisel's cipher was in the use S-Boxes for a non-linear lookup function based on the bit values of the ciphertext within each round. Operating on only 1/2 the ciphertext per round, the 48 expanded bits are chopped into 6-bit inputs across the 8 S-Boxes, with each 6-bit input performing a row/table lookup to yield 4 bits of output.  Without this non-linear function, DES would have been linear, and thus very weak. This design is even more impressive when you consider that the process ran the same forwards and backwards for encrypt/decrypt, and was optimized for hardware.  While met with great suspicion when introduced, the Data Encryption Standard proved worthy of the trust provided it, weathering every attack except Moore's Law and time, which ultimately led to its obsolescence due to brute force attacks.  40 years later, the field of cryptography, and the fabric of the Internet and digital commerce, owes much to the knowledge we gained regarding cryptanalysis and ciphers from this legacy

SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_Encryption_Standard#The_Feistel_.28F.29_function
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Wednesday, January 24, 2018

Ubuntu releases are usually nicknamed after animals. Which of these was not a release nickname?

Ubuntu releases are usually nicknamed after animals. Which of these was not a release nickname?

  • Avid Aardvark
  • Hoary Hedgehog
  • Jaunty Jackalope
  • Warty Warthog 

 
Ubuntu releases are usually nicknamed after animals. Which of these was not a release nickname?

EXPLANATION

The only one of these ridiculous names that isn't a real thing is Avid Aardvark.

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Tuesday, January 23, 2018

What version of Office are you using when the installation folder is Office14?

What version of Office are you using when the installation folder is Office14?

  • Office 2014
  • Office 2010
  • Office 2013
  • Office 2016 

 
What version of Office are you using when the installation folder is Office14?

EXPLANATION

Microsoft started office at version one and put the version number at the end of the folder. Beginning with Office 95, Microsoft started naming the versions after the years in which they were released, but they kept using the version number for the program folder.

SOURCE

http://www.ryadel.com/en/microsoft-office-default-installation-folders-versions/
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What is the default port used by a POP3 server for communicating with a POP3 client?

What is the default port used by a POP3 server for communicating with a POP3 client?

  • 587
  • 110
  • 109
  • 25 

 
What is the default port used by a POP3 server for communicating with a POP3 client?

EXPLANATION

Port 110 is the default POP3 non-encrypted port.
Port 995 is the default POP3 port for encrypted (SSL) traffic.

SOURCE

http://quiz.techlanda.com/2017/12/what-is-default-port-used-by-pop3.html
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Friday, January 19, 2018

When installing a new domain controller into an exisiting Windows Server 2012 R2 domain using Windows PowerShell, which cmdlet do you use?

When installing a new domain controller into an exisiting Windows Server 2012 R2 domain using Windows PowerShell, which cmdlet do you use?

  • Promote-ADSDomainController
  • Install-ADDomainController
  • Get-ADDSDomainController
  • Install-ADDSDomainController 
 
When installing a new domain controller into an exisiting Windows Server 2012 R2 domain using Windows PowerShell, which cmdlet do you use?

EXPLANATION

When installing a new domain controller into an existing AD domain, use the Install-ADDSDomainController cmdlet and the parameters that meet your needs.

SOURCE

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh974723%28v=wps.630%29.aspx
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Thursday, January 18, 2018

What are VM snapshots intended to be used for?

What are VM snapshots intended to be used for?

  • To easily revert the VM to an earlier state
  • To shut down the server
  • As a backup tool for your VMs
  • To create albums 

 
What are VM snapshots intended to be used for?

EXPLANATION

Snapshots provide a fast and easy way to revert the virtual machine to a previous state. For this reason, virtual machine snapshots are intended mainly for use in development and test environments. Having an easy way to revert a virtual machine can be very useful if you need to recreate a specific state or condition so that you can troubleshoot a problem.
There are certain circumstances in which it may make sense to use snapshots in a production environment. For example, you can use snapshots to provide a way to revert a potentially risky operation in a production environment, such as applying an update to the software running in the virtual machine.
Many backup products use snapshots in a production environment. They create a snapshot and then processing continues from the snapshot, meanwhile they have an unchanging original to back up. Once the backup is completed the snapshot is merged back into the live environment. This allows a machine to be backed up with very little affect for the users and for them remains up 24/7.
NB: Hyper-V snapshots do not replace backups. Backup usually involves some form of duplication (so two copies of the protected data exist) but in snapshots... there is no duplication whatsoever. All data is in VHD(X) file and changes in AVHD(X) file and if the VHD(X) file is damaged/lost, the data is pretty much gone. Also with most backups you can restore a single file to an earlier state, but with Snapshots, it's all or nothing (meaning if an user wants a file from last week, you'd have to bring the whole system back a week). There are other concerns as well (there might be performance  issues with multiple snapshots, snapshots usually lose value as they age and there are issues with disk space)

SOURCE

https://kb.vmware.com/selfservice/microsites/search.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=1015180
 
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Wednesday, January 17, 2018

The 'CAT' (Category) rating on a multimeter relates to its capability to

The 'CAT' (Category) rating on a multimeter relates to its capability to:

  • Survive in tough environments
  • Reduce user hazards
  • Maintain high accuracy
  • Provide extended battery life 

 
The 'CAT' (Category) rating on a multimeter relates to its capability to

EXPLANATION

The Category rating, typically CAT I, II, III, IV etc, relates to the ability of the meter to avoid creating a safety hazard when subjected to a massive overload, as for example when inadvertently connected directly across a supply when on a current range. It does not necessarily imply that the meter will survive the abuse. Rather, that the result should not include user injury due to fire, insulation failure, arcing or bursting open of the case.

Budget meters sold for use on small electronic projects do not typically have the protection devices (Especially, high breaking-current fuses) fitted to meters intended for measurements on distribution boards, etc. Therefore anyone intending such work should choose a meter with a suitable CAT rating.

http://support.fluke.com/find-sales/download/asset/1263690_6116_eng_h_w.pdf

SOURCE

http://support.fluke.com/find-sales/download/asset/1263690_6116_eng_h_w.pdf
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Tuesday, January 16, 2018

What is the limiting factor that prevents older PCs from using a hard drive larger than 2.2 terabytes?

What is the limiting factor that prevents older PCs from using a hard drive larger than 2.2 terabytes?

  • GPT (GUID Partition Table)
  • MBR (Master Boot Record)
  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
  • UEFI (Unified EFI) 

 
What is the limiting factor that prevents older PCs from using a hard drive larger than 2.2 terabytes?

EXPLANATION

This limit arises from the maximum size of the master boot record (MBR) partitioning method used by most personal computers. BIOS systems with MBR disks use 32-bit values to describe the starting offset and length of a partition. Due to this size limit, MBR allows a maximum disk size of approximately 2.2 TB and a maximum of four primary partitions.
UEFI supports the GUID Partition Table (GPT), a more flexible partitioning scheme. GPT disks use 64-bit values to describe partitions, allowing larger partitions. GPT also fixes other issues related to MBR (data integrity, backup tables, maximum number of partitions, ...). Using 64-bit values, GPT can handle disks of up to 9.4 x 10^21 bytes or 9.4 zettabytes (ZB).

SOURCE

http://www.uefi.org/sites/default/files/resources/UEFI_Drive_Partition_Limits_Fact_Sheet.pdf
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Friday, January 12, 2018

Which of the following protocols is not directly related to VOIP?

Which of the following protocols is not directly related to VOIP?

  • Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Inter-Asterisk eXchange (IAX) 

 
Which of the following protocols is not directly related to VOIP?

EXPLANATION


Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
Voice over IP has been implemented in various ways using both proprietary protocols and protocols based on open standards. VoIP protocols include:
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) H.323Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) Gateway Control Protocol (Megaco, H.248) Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) Session Description Protocol (SDP) Inter-Asterisk eXchange (IAX) Jingle XMPP VoIP extensions Skype protocol

SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voice_over_IP
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What is Puppet used for?

What is Puppet used for?

  • Advanced threat management
  • Configuration management
  • Remote desktop operations
  • Backups and restores 

 
What is Puppet used for?

EXPLANATION

Puppet is an open-source configuration management tool that runs on Unix-like systems as well as on Microsoft Windows. It has its own declarative language that you can use to describe your system's configuration.
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When a user computer or device (like a cell phone, tablet, or printer) is having general, odd software problems, what is the most common easy fix?

When a user computer or device (like a cell phone, tablet, or printer) is having general, odd software problems, what is the most common easy fix?

  • Turn it off and on again
  • Update the drivers
  • Attach a debugger to the port
  • Replace the flash memory 

 
When a user computer or device (like a cell phone, tablet, or printer) is having general, odd software problems, what is the most common easy fix?

EXPLANATION

Computerized devices have become extremely complex in software and hardware interactions. The highly interwoven tangle of software dependencies will frequently cause small memory leaks, resource contentions, and other unexpected results, cascading over time. Just like a deep cleaning in the kitchen is great for a chef to maintain food quality, a reboot is oftentimes the quickest and easiest way to get a misbehaving system to clear its slate and get back into an operating state.
Sadly, since the concept is so simple and seems inane, many users will not do it when instructed. Performing this quick and basic step first thing will often correct the original issue and if it doesn't (and the user complains they did it already), it still provides the benefit of starting troubleshooting with the knowledge that you're starting from a basic system state.
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Friday, January 5, 2018

Who is credited with developing the Virtual Integrated Network Service?

Who is credited with developing the Virtual Integrated Network Service?

  • ePresence
  • Unisys
  • IBM
  • Banyan Systems 

 
Who is credited with developing the Virtual Integrated Network Service?

EXPLANATION

In 1984, Banyan Systems introduced a set of network protocols and a computer network operating system known as Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service). It was most commonly used by government entities, but later became obsolete as newer technologies from Microsoft and IBM began to overshadow its existing systems.
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Thursday, January 4, 2018

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Which of the Following is NOT a Sync Type when Syncing Files and Folders using SyncToy, FreeFileSync and other File Syncing Tools?

Which of the Following is NOT a Sync Type when Syncing Files and Folders using SyncToy, FreeFileSync and other File Syncing Tools?

  • Mirror
  •  Dedupe
  • Sync (Two-Way Sync)
  • Contribute (Update) 
Which of the Following is NOT a Sync Type when Syncing Files and Folders using SyncToy, FreeFileSync and other File Syncing Tools?

 EXPLANATION

Dedupe is a Storage Technology which operates on a block level to save storage space using pointers to data blocks. It is not a file level operation.
Contribute / Update -> Updates Files from the Left Folder Path to the Right without deleting any files or folders. Renamed, Modified and New Files and Folders are added from Left to Right.
Sync (Two-Way Sync) - New items, Renames, Modifications and Deletions are synced from Left to Right and Right to Left Paths (both directions).
Mirror - Copies and Overwrites all file and folder items from the Left Path to The Right Path - creates a mirror copy from Left to Right File Paths. Useful for Backups to removable storage such as USB External Hard Drives.

SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_synchronization
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What do registers provide for the CPU?

What do registers provide for the CPU?

  • Enable the CPU to control the address bus
  • Determine the clock speed
  • Enable the CPU to address RAM
  • Provide temporary storage of internal commands 
 
What do registers provide for the CPU?

EXPLANATION

A processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a digital processor's central processing unit (CPU). Registers usually consist of a small amount of fast storage, which the CPU uses to temporarily store internal commands and data.
 
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Which of the following is not an automatic variable in PowerShell?

Which of the following is not an automatic variable in PowerShell?

  • $Matches
  • $Last
  • $args
  • $Error 

Which of the following is not an automatic variable in PowerShell?

EXPLANATION

While there are automatic variables for the last cmdlet executed, the last argument used in that cmdlet, and the exit status (False if it threw an error; True if it didn't), there is no automatic variable that represents the last full command, or the last command's output.  $Last is not an automatic variable in the shell.
$Error is an array that's populated by all errors output in the current session (by default, up to 256 errors, although this can be changed by changing the value in $MaximumErrorCount).
$args is an array containing any command line arguments that were passed to a function or script; it's only usable from within that function or script.  Typically, this is not used as "param()" is a lot more powerful and typically easier to work with.
$Matches is an array containing the results of the last match with regular expressions against a string.  Note that it does not get populated if the match was performed against an array; in that case, -match just outputs the matching items directly to output.

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According to ITIL, which of the following should IT services provide to customers?

According to ITIL, which of the following should IT services provide to customers?

  • Skills
  • Risk
  • Value
  • Costs 
According to ITIL, which of the following should IT services provide to customers?

EXPLANATION

From the customer's point of view the value of a service consists of two basic elements:

Utility: The functionality offered by a product or service to meet a particular need. Utility can be summarized as ‘what the service does’, and can be used to determine whether a service is able to meet its required outcomes, or is ‘fit for purpose’. The business value of an IT service is created by the combination of utility and warranty.

Warrancy: Assurance that a product or service will meet agreed requirements. This may be a formal agreement such as a service level agreement or contract, or it may be a marketing message or brand image. Warranty refers to the ability of a service to be available when needed, to provide the required capacity, and to provide the required reliability in terms of continuity and security. Warranty can be summarized as ‘how the service is delivered’, and can be used to determine whether a service is ‘fit for use’. The business value of an IT service is created by the combination of utility and warranty.

SOURCE

https://www.axelos.com/Corporate/media/Files/Glossaries/ITIL_2011_Glossary_GB-v1-0.pdf
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