IT Questions and Answers :)

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Which of the following languages requires server-side interpretation?

Which of the following languages requires server-side interpretation?

  • CFML
  • XML
  • Java
  • CSS 

 
Which of the following languages requires server-side interpretation?

EXPLANATION

ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) is a scripting language that augments standard HTML files with database commands, conditional operators, high-level formatting functions, and other elements to produce web applications. CFML also includes numerous other constructs, including ColdFusion Components (CFCs), CFML's version of objects, which allow for separation of business logic from presentation.
CFML can be written using either tags or CFScript, which is an ECMA script-style language.
The pages in a CFML application include the server-side CFML tags and functions in addition to HTML tags. Modern CFML applications also tend to have CFCs that are accessed by the CFML pages for executing business logic. When a web browser requests a page in a ColdFusion application, it is automatically pre-processed by the ColdFusion application server.
ability
CFML can also be used to generate other languages,such as XML, JavaScript, and CSS.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ColdFusion_Markup_Language

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Monday, June 18, 2018

Heaps and stacks are affected by which of the following attacks?

Heaps and stacks are affected by which of the following attacks?

  • Buffer overflows
  • Ping flood
  • SQL injection
  • Cross site scripting 

 
Heaps and stacks are affected by which of the following attacks?

EXPLANATION

Heaps and stacks are data structures that can be affected by buffer overflows. A buffer overflow vulnerability allows an attacker to corrupt the execution stack of an application by inserting data into adjacent memory locations. This can cause application or operating system instability or, in the hands of a skilled attacker, even allow arbitrary code execution.

SQL Injection is a vulnerability that allows an attacker to query or manipulate a database using user input fields.
Cross site scripting is a vulnerability that allows for an attacker to inject client site scripts into web pages that is intended to be executed by other users.

A ping flood is a method of performing denial of service (DoS or DDoS) against network devices.
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Friday, June 15, 2018

The VHDX virtual hard disk format supports what maximum storage capacity?

The VHDX virtual hard disk format supports what maximum storage capacity?

  • 640GB
  • 6.4PB
  • 64TB
  • 6.4TB 

 
The VHDX virtual hard disk format supports what maximum storage capacity?

EXPLANATION

The VHDX disk format supports virtual hard disks as large as 64TB with power failure resiliency.


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Thursday, June 14, 2018

Which of the following features of cloud computing matches resources to the current demand?

Which of the following features of cloud computing matches resources to the current demand?

  • Elasticity
  • Security
  • Redundancy
  • Availability 

Which of the following features of cloud computing matches resources to the current demand?

EXPLANATION

Elasticity refers to the ability of a cloud service to scale on demand. Resources such as storage, bandwidth, or memory can be provisioned in a matter of minutes and scaled down when no longer needed.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elasticity_(cloud_computing)
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Tuesday, June 12, 2018

What does a hop count of 16 mean in RIPv1?

What does a hop count of 16 mean in RIPv1?

  • The administrative distance is 16
  • The destination is an infinite distance away and unreachable
  • The device is 16 hops away
  • It established a 16 Mb connection to the device 
What does a hop count of 16 mean in RIPv1?

EXPLANATION




RIPv1 is a Classful routing protocol. Classful routing protocols support only the networks which are not subnetted. The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15,
which limits the size of networks that RIP can support. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance and the route is considered unreachable.

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In a Windows command script (cmd.exe), what does the string %~dp0 stand for?

In a Windows command script (cmd.exe), what does the string %~dp0 stand for?

  • The script's current working directory
  • The path, including drive, where the script resides
  • The user's home directory
  • The system's temp directory 

EXPLANATION


In the help for the FOR command, the %~ format for variable expansion is discussed.  This can be used outside of the FOR command as well.  The following options are relevant:
%~dI - expands %I to a drive letter only
%~pI - expands %I to a path only
The modifiers can be combined to get compound results, so
%~dp0 - expands %I to a drive letter and path only
Finally, %0 is the built-in variable reference to the path to the batch file that includes the file name (i.e. the 0th argument to the cmd.exe program).
The script's current working directory is returned using cd with no arguments.  It isn't necessarily the same as the script's parent directory, especially if the script is run from a non-system drive or UNC path.  In the latter case, the working directory can end up being set to the Windows directory.
The user's home directory is referenced by the "%HOMEDRIVE%\%HOMEPATH%" or %USERPROFILE% envars.
The system temp directory is referenced by the %TEMP% envar.

SOURCE

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5034076/what-does-dp0-mean-and-how-does-it-work
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Saturday, June 9, 2018

Which BASH internal variable holds the exit status of the previous command or function?

Which BASH internal variable holds the exit status of the previous command or function?

  • $?
  • $_
  • $@
  • $$ 

 
Which BASH internal variable holds the exit status of the previous command or function?

EXPLANATION

$? is a special variable that is internal to the BASH interpreter. It is used to hold the exit code of the previously executed command or function (or even the script itself).

Example:

#!/bin/bash

/bin/true
echo $? #prints 0

/bin/false
echo $? #prints 1

/bin/foobar
res=$?
if [ $res -ne 0 ]
then
  echo "Command foobar failed to execute or exited with a non-zero status: $res"
else
   echo "Command foobar exited successfully"
fi

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Thursday, June 7, 2018

The intersection of a column and row in a spreadsheet is called a bon or a __?

The intersection of a column and row in a spreadsheet is called a bon or a __?

  • Cell
  • Box
  • Key
  • Field 
The intersection of a column and row in a spreadsheet is called a bon or a __?

 

EXPLANATION





The intersection of a vertical column and horizontal row is called a cell.The location, or address, of a specific cell is identified by using the headers of the column and row involved. For example, cell "F2" is located at the spot where column "F" and row "2" meet.

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Wednesday, June 6, 2018

Which type of malicious attack not only affects the bandwidth of your connection but also interferes with your mailbox's capability to handle normal email?

Which type of malicious attack not only affects the bandwidth of your connection but also interferes with your mailbox's capability to handle normal email?

  • TCP Syn Scan
  • Mail bombing
  • Spam
  • Flood pings 

 
Which type of malicious attack not only affects the bandwidth of your connection but also interferes with your mailbox's capability to handle normal email?

EXPLANATION




 A mail bomb attack sends massive amounts of email to a specific person or system.
A huge amount of mail may simply fill up the recipient's disk space on the server or, in some cases, may be too much for a server to handle and cause the server to stop functioning.

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Tuesday, June 5, 2018

If you have a RAID 10 setup with four 500 GB HDDs, how much usable storage capacity will you have?

If you have a RAID 10 setup with four 500 GB HDDs, how much usable storage capacity will you have?

  • 1 TB
  • 4 TB
  • 2 TB
  • 1.5 TB 
If you have a RAID 10 setup with four 500 GB HDDs, how much usable storage capacity will you have?

 EXPLANATION

RAID 10 contains two sets of mirrored drives, and each mirrored set takes two 500 GB drives to store 500 GB of data.
The data will be striped across the two sets for a total of 1 TB usable storage.
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In Windows Active Directory, what are Group Policy Objects?

In Windows Active Directory, what are Group Policy Objects?

  • Settings that define what a system should look like and how it will behave
  • They determine the hierarchy of a domain, which can fit the operational structure of an organization
  • A set of folder rules that determine where Outlook will save email messages
  • Affords the capability for secure extension of network operations to the Web 

 
In Windows Active Directory, what are Group Policy Objects?

EXPLANATION

Group Policy, in part, controls what users can and cannot do on a computer system: for example, to enforce a password complexity policy that prevents users from choosing an overly simple password, to allow or prevent unidentified users from remote computers to connect to a network share, to block access to the Windows Task Manager or to restrict access to certain folders. A set of such configurations is called a Group Policy Object (GPO)
See: http://searchwindowsserver.techtarget.com/definition/Group-Policy-Object

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Friday, June 1, 2018

The Betamax was to VHS, as

The Betamax was to VHS, as

  • DASD is to SAN
  • Terminate and Stay Resident is to Internal OS Commands
  • Switching is to Routing
  • Token-Ring is to Ethernet 

The Betamax was to VHS, as

EXPLANATION

One one time in the 1980s Ethernet and Token-Ring were very competitive, vying for the same customers and networks, replacing Arcnet (similar to Token-Ring) an older network topology.  Speed and reliability of Ethernet versus Token-Ring was the difference maker, and eventually Token-Ring is no longer used nor supported.

SOURCE

http://www.eweek.com/networking/30-years-ago-networking-in-the-1980s-meant-ethernet-vs.-token-ring
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Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Which of the following commands could you use to exit the vi Editor in Linux, saving changes?

Which of the following commands could you use to exit the vi Editor in Linux, saving changes?

  • :q
  • :q!
  • :x
  • Ctrl + Z 

Which of the following commands could you use to exit the vi Editor in Linux, saving changes?

 EXPLANATION



:x - Exit, saving changes
:q - Exit as long as there have been no changes

:q! - Exit and ignore any changes
Ctrl + Z - Suspend editor
https://www.cs.colostate.edu/helpdocs/vi.html
http://www.lagmonster.org/docs/vi.html
http://www.rollanet.org/~mdoc/vi.htm
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Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Which of the following is a software implementation of a telephone private branch exchange (PBX)?

Which of the following is a software implementation of a telephone private branch exchange (PBX)?

  • Snom
  • Digium
  • Asterisk
  • Polycom 

 
Which of the following is a software implementation of a telephone private branch exchange (PBX)?

EXPLANATION

Digium is the company and hardware (appliance) name where Asterisk is software name. Polycom and Snom provide VoIP equipment.

SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asterisk_(PBX)
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Saturday, May 26, 2018

Which of the following is the primary benefit of Platform as a Service (PaaS)?

Which of the following is the primary benefit of Platform as a Service (PaaS)?

  • High bandwidth
  • Replication
  • Low latency
  • Rapid application deployment 

Which of the following is the primary benefit of Platform as a Service (PaaS)?

EXPLANATION

PaaS provides rapid application deployment. Platform as a service (PaaS) is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop,
run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.
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What is the minimum number of drives required for a non-degraded Raid 5 array?

What is the minimum number of drives required for a non-degraded Raid 5 array?

  • 2
  • 4
  • 5
  • 3
 
What is the minimum number of drives required for a non-degraded Raid 5 array?
 

EXPLANATION

RAID 5 requires 3 disks. It consists of block-level data striping with distributed parity. This means that data is striped across multiple disks with fault-tolerant parity data written to each disk. If one disk fails, the array can reconstruct the data from the parity information. 
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Wednesday, May 23, 2018

In a computer device, which of the following types of memory has the fastest access time?

In a computer device, which of the following types of memory has the fastest access time?

  • PCIe based SSD memory
  • RAM
  • CPU register
  • CPU cache 

 
In a computer device, which of the following types of memory has the fastest access time?

EXPLANATION

The faster the memory is the more expensive. Also the closer to the CPU is the lesser the latency would be. In this regard one can reasonably suggest which is the fastest memory only be looking by it size and location in the system.
The fastest memory block in a computer is the CPU register but it is also the smallest. It is followed by various levels of CPU cache. More info can be found here:
http://www.moreprocess.com/devices/computer-memory-hierarchy-internal-register-cache-ram-hard-disk-m...
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Tuesday, May 22, 2018

In computing security, which of the following describes a nonce?

In computing security, which of the following describes a nonce?

  • A hacking algorythm
  • No Other non-Critical Events
  • A value used once
  • A vector 

 
In computing security, which of the following describes a nonce?

EXPLANATION

Typically, a nonce is some value that varies with time, although a very large random number is sometimes used. A nonce can be a time stamp, a visit counter on a Web page, or a special marker intended to limit or prevent the unauthorized replay or reproduction of a file.

SOURCE

http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/nonce
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Monday, May 21, 2018

What type of RAID is RAID-Z?

What type of RAID is RAID-Z?

  • Hardware RAID
  • Software RAID
  • not a RAID
  • Virtual RAID 

 
What type of RAID is RAID-Z?

EXPLANATION

RAID-Z is a software raid achieved by

data/parity distribution scheme like RAID-5, but uses dynamic stripe width: every block is its own RAID stripe. It is primarily used by ZFS file system.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZFS#RAID-Z


SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZFS#RAID-Z
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Wednesday, May 16, 2018

In computing, what is an octet? Checkmark A byte that is 8 bits A group of 8x8 bits A byte that is 80 bits A short string of coding

In computing, what is an octet?

  • A byte that is 8 bits
  • A group of 8x8 bits
  • A byte that is 80 bits
  • A short string of coding

 
In computing, what is an octet?      Checkmark A byte that is 8 bits A group of 8x8 bits A byte that is 80 bits A short string of coding

EXPLANATION

An octet is a byte, that is eight bits. This unit of digital information is often used in computing and telecommunications when the term byte might be ambiguous,
since historically there was no standard definition for the size of the byte. The usage of the old term octad(e) for 8 bits is no longer common today. (wiki)
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Tuesday, May 15, 2018

What is one of the primary weaknesses of symmetric cryptography?

What is one of the primary weaknesses of symmetric cryptography?

  • Hard disk storage
  • RAM memory requirement
  • CPU processing speed
  • Key Management 

What is one of the primary weaknesses of symmetric cryptography?

EXPLANATION

Symmetric cryptography is usually fast and easy to implement. This is because encryption and decryption with a private key requires less complex computation than other types of cryptography. The significant disadvantage of symmetric encryption relate to the difficulties of managing the private key.
 
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Monday, May 14, 2018

Apple's Profile Manager is an example of what type of service?

Apple's Profile Manager is an example of what type of service?

  • MDM
  • ASM
  • APPL
  • DEP 

 
Apple's Profile Manager is an example of what type of service?

EXPLANATION

Apple's PRofile Manager is an example of a Mobile Device Management (MDM) service. Profile Manager can be used to control and distribute settings, apps and other content to Apple OSX and Apple iOS devices.

SOURCE

https://support.apple.com/profile-manager
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Friday, May 11, 2018

Which of the following characters designates a class in CSS?

Which of the following characters designates a class in CSS?

  • #
  • !
  • .

 
 Which of the following characters designates a class in CSS?

EXPLANATION

The .class selector selects elements with a specific class attribute.  To select elements with a specific class, write a period (.) character, followed by the name of the class.

Definition and Usage

The .class selector selects elements with a specific class attribute.

To select elements with a specific class, write a period (.) character, followed by the name of the class.

You can also specify that only specific HTML elements should be affected by a class. To do this, start with the element name, then write the period (.) character, followed by the name of the class (look at Example 1 below).

HTML elements can also refer to more than one class (look at Example 2 below). 
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In Windows, out of the following commands, which command line command will show you the last reboot time of your machine?

In Windows, out of the following commands, which command line command will show you the last reboot time of your machine?

  • net statistics workstation
  • netstat -a
  • get-uptime
  • uptime 

 
In Windows, out of the following commands, which command line command will show you the last reboot time of your machine?

EXPLANATION

The net statistics command displays the statistics log for the local Workstation or Server service, or the running services for which statistics are available. Used without parameters, net statistics lists the running services for which statistics are available.
The available parameters are:
workstation   : Displays statistics for the local Workstation service.
server   : Displays statistics for the local Server service.
net help   command   : Displays help for the specified net command.

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490714.aspx

SOURCE

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490714.aspx
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Tuesday, May 8, 2018

Which type of backup site has the fastest recovery time?

Which type of backup site has the fastest recovery time?

  • Hot site
  • Cold site
  • Middle Site
  • Warm Site 

 
Which type of backup site has the fastest recovery time?

EXPLANATION

A hot backup site is a full duplicate of the source data center, so has the fastest recovery time but also the highest price tag. The warm site is a scaled-down hot site,
which includes basics like power, networking, and telecommunications that are active at all times. A cold site usually includes power and physical space when not in use, giving you the longest recovery window for the cheapest price.
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Monday, May 7, 2018

In vSphere, what technology is used to perform a live migration of a VM to another host?

In vSphere, what technology is used to perform a live migration of a VM to another host?

  • Replication
  • VMotion
  • Cloning
  • Snapshots 

 
In vSphere, what technology is used to perform a live migration of a VM to another host?

EXPLANATION




VMware VMotion enables the live migration of running virtual machines from one physical server to another with no downtime, continuous service availability, and complete transaction integrity. It is transparent to users.



 www.mosaictec.com/tessera/what-is-vmotion.htm

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Saturday, May 5, 2018

Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for managing and terminating the connections between the local and remote application?

Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for managing and terminating the connections between the local and remote application?

  • Application layer
  • Network layer
  • Data link layer
  • Session layer 

Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for managing and terminating the connections between the local and remote application?

EXPLANATION

The session layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers.
It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application.
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Thursday, May 3, 2018

In a Unix environment, what is a daemon?

In a Unix environment, what is a daemon?

  • A multicore processor type for Linux OS
  • A type of virus or malware
  • A different user interface or desktop
  • A program that runs as a background process

 
In a Unix environment, what is a daemon?

EXPLANATION

Wikipedia entry: A daemon is a computer program that runs as a background process,
rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user.
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Cloud solutions that can tolerate failures yet still provide service are referred to as what?

Cloud solutions that can tolerate failures yet still provide service are referred to as what?

  • IaaS
  • Highly portable
  • PaaS
  • Highly available 

Cloud solutions that can tolerate failures yet still provide service are referred to as what?

EXPLANATION

High availability ensures that cloud solutions are always accessible.
This means eliminating single points of failure, such as storing data on a single hard disk or single network connections.
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Tuesday, May 1, 2018

A user can receive email but cannot send any. Which protocol, responsible for sending email, is potentially not configured properly?

A user can receive email but cannot send any. Which protocol, responsible for sending email, is potentially not configured properly?

  • SNMP
  • FTP
  • POP3
  • SMTP

A user can receive email but cannot send any. Which protocol, responsible for sending email, is potentially not configured properly?

EXPLANATION

The simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) is probably not configured properly.
When troubleshooting, you need to confirm the SMTP setting because it is responsible for sending mail. POP3 receives mail, so wouldn't be responsible for the send issue, unless you are using Outlook (where POP3 authentication is required before email can be sent over SMTP). FTP sends files to remote computers and SNMP is used to manage networks.
FTP and SNMP are not responsible for users sending or receiving email.

SOURCE

http://searchexchange.techtarget.com/definition/SMTP
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Monday, April 30, 2018

Computers need to maintain certain settings (for example, date, time, some hardware settings, etc.) even when they are completely powered off. Such settings are used at start-up (among other uses). Where are these settings stored and maintained?

Computers need to maintain certain settings (for example, date, time, some hardware settings, etc.) even when they are completely powered off. Such settings are used at start-up (among other uses). Where are these settings stored and maintained?

  • In the BIOS
  • In Zone 0 of the hard drive
  • In the CMOS
  • In the Operating System 

 
Computers need to maintain certain settings (for example, date, time, some hardware settings, etc.) even when they are completely powered off. Such settings are used at start-up (among other uses). Where are these settings stored and maintained?

EXPLANATION

CMOS, which stands for "Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor", is a battery-powered semiconductor chip that stores information such as date, time and certain hardware settings. A tiny battery, similar to a watch battery, is what allows the CMOS to maintain information while the machine is powered off. As they are typically designed to last about ten years, and since most computers get scrapped before then, this is why you probably haven't had to replace many CMOS batteries.

While the BIOS uses data from the CMOS, these are two separate things. See the following for more information on the difference between the two and how they work together: http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001360.htm

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Saturday, April 28, 2018

How many kibibytes (KiB) are in 1 tebibyte (TiB)?

How many kibibytes (KiB) are in 1 tebibyte (TiB)?

  • 1,073,741,824 KiB
  • 1,048,576 KiB
  • 10,240,000,000 KiB
  • 1,000,000 KiB 

 
How many kibibytes (KiB) are in 1 tebibyte (TiB)?

EXPLANATION

The interpretation of the older term "kilobyte" to denote 1024 bytes, conflicting with the SI definition of the prefix kilo (1000), is still common, mostly in informal computer science contexts
1 kibibyte = 1,024 bytes
1 mebibyte = 1,024 kibibytes
1 gibibyte = 1,024 mebibytes = 1,048,576 kibibytes
1 tebibyte = 1,024 gibibytes = 1,048,576 mebibytes = 1,073,741,824 kibibytes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibibyte

SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibibyte
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What TCP port is SFTP or Secure File Transfer Protocol commonly used on?

What TCP port is SFTP or Secure File Transfer Protocol commonly used on?

  • 7777
  • 69
  • 22
  • 21 

 
What TCP port is SFTP or Secure File Transfer Protocol commonly used on?

EXPLANATION

Secure File Transfer Protocol is commonly placed on 22 as it is also known as File Transfer Protocol on SSH. Not to be confused with File Transfer Protocol over TLS/SSL or FTPS, as there are no answers for ports 989 or 990.
 For more information, see:
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT202944
https://www.infobyip.com/tcpportchecker.php
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What are the tones called when you press a key on your telephone?

What are the tones called when you press a key on your telephone?

  • Multiple Frequency Tone Signal
  • Dual Signal Tone Frequency
  • Dual Tone Multiple Frequency (MF4)
  • Single Tone Frequency 
What are the tones called when you press a key on your telephone?

EXPLANATION

DTMF (dual tone multi-frequency) is the beeping signal to the phone company that you generate when you press an ordinary telephone's touch keys.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual-tone_multi-frequency_signaling

SOURCE


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What is DCL used for in SQL?


What is DCL used for in SQL?

  • Monitor database transactions
  • Solving deadlock situations
  • Control access to data stored in a database
  • Control database size and archiving schedule 

 

EXPLANATION

A data control language (DCL) is a syntax similar to a computer programming language used to control access to data stored in a database (Authorization). In particular, it is a component of Structured Query Language (SQL).
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Monday, April 23, 2018

Amazon DNS service is called?

Amazon DNS service is called?

  • EC2
  • S3 Bucket
  • SES
  • Route 53 
 
Amazon DNS service is called?

EXPLANATION

Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable cloud Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It is designed to give developers and businesses an extremely reliable and cost effective way to route end users to Internet applications by translating names like www.example.com into the numeric IP addresses. 

SOURCE

https://aws.amazon.com/route53/
 
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Friday, April 20, 2018

In PowerShell, which of the following is a feature that you use to assign a set of commands (optionally with input parameters) to execute by a single name?

In PowerShell, which of the following is a feature that you use to assign a set of commands (optionally with input parameters) to execute by a single name?

  • subroutine
  • procedure
  • function
  • method 

 
In PowerShell, which of the following is a feature that you use to assign a set of commands (optionally with input parameters) to execute by a single name?

EXPLANATION


In PowerShell, functions can act like miniature scripts within scripts which are executed by name, and they can be everything from a few commands, to full blown cmdlets written entirely in PowerShell (called Advanced Functions).
about_Functions on MSDN: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/reference/4.0/microsoft.powershell.core/about/about_func...
about_Functions_Advanced on MSDN: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/reference/4.0/microsoft.powershell.core/about/
Methods exist in PowerShell as well, as members of .NET objects: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/reference/4.0/microsoft.powershell.core/about/about_meth...
Note: you can also access the above three directly in PowerShell with the commands:
Get-Help about_Functions
Get-Help about_Functions_Advanced
Get-Help about_Methods
Going beyond PowerShell, this is mostly a naming convention: the differences between the four names seem to vary from language to language.  While there are general technical definitions for each of the terms (for instance, "functions return a value; procedures do not"), these are not used universally among languages and programmers; as such, it's generally best to follow the naming convention common to the specific language.For more reading on the terms: http://softwareengineering.stackexchange.com/questions/20909/method-vs-function-vs-procedure

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Thursday, April 19, 2018

In Windows, What does the "ping -a" command allow you to find out about an IP address?

In Windows, What does the "ping -a" command allow you to find out about an IP address?

  • Router address of the host
  • IP address of the host
  • Resolve the host name
  • Default gateway of the host 

 
In Windows, What does the "ping -a" command allow you to find out about an IP address?

EXPLANATION

In many cases, the "ping -a" command will return the host name if you know the IP address.
This is a good first step when attempting to identify the host.

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Wednesday, April 18, 2018

A hypervisor that runs directly on top of hardware (as opposed to on an OS) is known as:

A hypervisor that runs directly on top of hardware (as opposed to on an OS) is known as:

  • Side saddle
  • Hosted
  • Bare metal
  • Type 2 

 
A hypervisor that runs directly on top of hardware (as opposed to on an OS) is known as:

EXPLANATION

A bare-metal (also known as native or type-1) hypervisor runs directly on the host's hardware to control the hardware and to manage guest operating systems. For this reason, they are sometimes called bare-metal hypervisors.
A guest operating system runs as a process on the host.
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Which benefit of being joined to a domain is not natively shared by Apple Macintosh computers?

Which benefit of being joined to a domain is not natively shared by Apple Macintosh computers?

  • Group Policy
  • Password Policy Enforcement
  • Single Sign-On
  • Windows Home Folders 

 
Which benefit of being joined to a domain is not natively shared by Apple Macintosh computers?

EXPLANATION


A domain-joined Mac workstation allows users to enjoy the following privileges:
  • Kerberos authentication and delegation, including Single Sign-On to local, AD, and Open Directory resources
  • AD password policy enforcement
  • Support for AD user and group accounts
  • Windows home folders
Of course, Mac computers do not have a Windows Registry and so therefore cannot be managed natively by Group Policy (the password policy issue previously mentioned is a notable exception).

SOURCE

https://4sysops.com/archives/how-to-join-a-mac-os-x-computer-to-active-directory/
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Friday, April 13, 2018

In Linux and Unix systems, what directory is most likely to contain system configuration data?

In Linux and Unix systems, what directory is most likely to contain system configuration data?

  • /boot/
  • ~/.config
  • /usr/share/doc
  • /etc/ 
 
In Linux and Unix systems, what directory is most likely to contain system configuration data?

EXPLANATION

As a rule, system configuration data should be kept in /etc/ http://tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Filesystem-Hierarchy/Linux-Filesystem-Hierarchy.pdf This can be quite useful knowledge when figuring out backup and recovery plans!
 
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Thursday, April 12, 2018

You setup your server to accept PPTP VPN client connections. You accurately port forward TCP 1723 on the firewall to the server, but clients still cannot connect. Of the below options, what would be the most likely reason?

You setup your server to accept PPTP VPN client connections. You accurately port forward TCP 1723 on the firewall to the server, but clients still cannot connect. Of the below options, what would be the most likely reason?

  • GRE not enabled or blocked on the firewall.
  • Port forward of UDP 1723 missing.
  • No static routes configured on the firewall.
  • Port forward of UDP 500 missing.
You setup your server to accept PPTP VPN client connections. You accurately port forward TCP 1723 on the firewall to the server, but clients still cannot connect. Of the below options, what would be the most likely reason?

EXPLANATION

GRE is an encapsulation protocol required by some PPTP VPN connections, notably Microsoft's implementation. Some cheaper and consumer level firewall/routers do not support or have an option for GRE, or if it does it might be disabled or blocked.
UDP 500 is specific to IPSEC.
Along with the citation, also see...
http://whp-aus1.cold.extweb.hp.com/pub/networking/software/ProCurve-SR-dl-GRE-Config-Guide.pdfhttp://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/generic-routing-encapsulation-gre/118361-technote-gre-0....
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generic_Routing_Encapsulation

SOURCE

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/rrasblog/2009/08/12/troubleshooting-common-vpn-related-errors/
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Convert 101101 from binary to decimal!

Convert 101101 from binary to decimal!

  • 44
  • 61
  • 45
  • 41 

Convert 101101 from binary to decimal!

EXPLANATION

Each 1 represents a power of 2, so this is equivalent to 2^5 + 2^3 + 2^2 + 2^0, or 32 + 8 + 4 + 1 = 45.

1 x 1 = 1
0 x 2 = 0
1 x 4 = 4
1 x 8 = 8
0 x 16 = 0
1 x 32 = 32

1 + 4 + 8 + 32 = 45
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Wednesday, April 11, 2018

What's a stealthy and continuous computer hacking process often targeted at a specific entity?

What's a stealthy and continuous computer hacking process often targeted at a specific entity?

  • Shadow ninja attack
  • Advanced persistent threat
  • Advanced malware attack
  • Silent and deadly attack 

 
What's a stealthy and continuous computer hacking process often targeted at a specific entity?

EXPLANATION

An advanced persistent threat (APT) uses multiple phases to break into a network, avoid detection, and harvest valuable information over the long term. The intention of an APT attack is to steal data rather than to cause damage to the network or organization. APTs require a high degree of covertness over an extended period of time.
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