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Friday, April 19, 2019

What technology do Multimode fiber cables use to transmit data?

What technology do Multimode fiber cables use to transmit data?

  • Fluorescents
  • LEDs
  • Magic
  • Lasers 
What technology do Multimode fiber cables use to transmit data?


According to Wiki.

Multi-mode fibers are described by their core and cladding
diameters. Thus, 62.5/125 µm multi-mode fiber has a core size of 62.5 micrometres (µm) and a cladding diameter of 125 µm. The transition between the core and cladding can be sharp, which is called a step-index profile, or a gradual transition, which is called a graded-index profile. The two types have different dispersion characteristics and thus different effective propagation distance.[6] Multi-mode fibers may be constructed with either graded or step-index profile.[7]
In addition, multi-mode fibers are described using a system of classification determined by the ISO 11801 standard — OM1, OM2, and OM3 — which is based on the modal bandwidth of the multi-mode fiber. OM4 (defined in TIA-492-AAAD) was finalized in August 2009,[8] and was published by the end of 2009 by the TIA.[9] OM4 cable will support 125m links at 40 and 100 Gbit/s. The letters "OM" stand for optical multi-mode.
For many years 62.5/125 µm (OM1) and conventional 50/125 µm multi-mode fiber (OM2) were widely deployed in premises applications. These fibers easily support applications ranging from Ethernet (10 Mbit/s) to gigabit Ethernet (1 Gbit/s) and, because of their relatively large core size, were ideal for use with LED transmitters. Newer deployments often use laser-optimized 50/125 µm multi-mode fiber (OM3). Fibers that meet this designation provide sufficient bandwidth to support 10 Gigabit Ethernet up to 300 meters. Optical fiber manufacturers have greatly refined their manufacturing process since that standard was issued and cables can be made that support 10 GbE up to 400 meters. Laser optimized multi-mode fiber (LOMMF) is designed for use with 850 nm VCSELs.
The migration to LOMMF/OM3 has occurred as users upgrade to higher speed networks. LEDs have a maximum modulation rate of 622 Mbit/s because they cannot be turned on/off fast enough to support higher bandwidth applications. VCSELs are capable of modulation over 10 Gbit/s and are used in many high speed networks.
Some 200 and 400 Gigabit Ethernet speeds use wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) even for multi-mode fiber which isn't specified up to and including OM4. In 2017, OM5 has been standardized by TIA and ISO for WDM MMF, specifying not only a minimum modal bandwidth for 850 nm but a curve spanning from 850 to 953 nm.
Cables can sometimes be distinguished by jacket color: for 62.5/125 µm (OM1) and 50/125 µm (OM2), orange jackets are recommended, while aqua is recommended for 50/125 µm "laser optimized" OM3 and OM4 fiber.[4] Some fiber vendors use violet for "OM4+". OM5 is officially colored lime green.
VCSEL power profiles, along with variations in fiber uniformity, can cause modal dispersion which is measured by differential modal delay (DMD). Modal dispersion is caused by the different speeds of the individual modes in a light pulse. The net effect causes the light pulse to spread over distance, introducing intersymbol interference. The greater the length, the greater the modal dispersion. To combat modal dispersion, LOMMF is manufactured in a way that eliminates variations in the fiber which could affect the speed that a light pulse can travel. The refractive index profile is enhanced for VCSEL transmission and to prevent pulse spreading. As a result, the fibers maintain signal integrity over longer distances, thereby maximizing the bandwidth.




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