### Which of the following are based on public key cryptography?

- Hybrid keys
- Key escrow
- Digital signatures
- Diffusion

#### EXPLANATION

**Public-key cryptography**, or

**asymmetric cryptography**, is a cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys:

*public keys*which may be disseminated widely, and

*private keys*which are known only to the owner. The generation of such keys depends on cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems to produce one-way functions. Effective security only requires keeping the private key private; the public key can be openly distributed without compromising security.

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In such a system, any person can encrypt a message using the receiver's

*public key*, but that encrypted message can only be decrypted with the receiver's

*private key*.

Robust authentication is also possible. A sender can combine a message with a private key to create a short

*digital signature*on the message. Anyone with the sender's corresponding public key can combine the same message and the supposed digital signature associated with it to verify whether the signature was valid, i.e. made by the owner of the corresponding private key.

^{[2]}

^{[3]}

Public key algorithms are fundamental security ingredients in modern cryptosystems, applications and protocols assuring the confidentiality, authenticity and non-repudiability of electronic communications and data storage. They underpin various Internet standards, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), S/MIME, PGP, and GPG. Some public key algorithms provide key distribution and secrecy (e.g., Diffie–Hellman key exchange), some provide digital signatures (e.g., Digital Signature Algorithm), and some provide both (e.g., RSA).

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