# Quiz

## Which byte size unit is the largest?

### Which byte size unit is the largest?

• Zettabyte
• Terabyte
• Petabyte
• Yottabyte

#### EXPLANATION

Yottabyte is equal to 10^24 bytes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yottabyte

### The Byte

The byte is composed of eight bits.

• 0.1 bytes: A binary decision
• 1 byte: A single character
• 10 bytes: A single word
• 100 bytes: A telegram OR A punched card

### Kilobyte (1024 Bytes)

• 1 Kilobyte: A very short story
• 2 Kilobytes: A Typewritten page
• 10 Kilobytes: An encyclopaedic page OR A deck of punched cards
• 50 Kilobytes: A compressed document image page
• 100 Kilobytes: A low-resolution photograph
• 200 Kilobytes: A box of punched cards
• 500 Kilobytes: A very heavy box of punched cards

### Megabyte (1024 Kilobytes)

• 1 Megabyte: 4 books (873 pages of plain text) OR A 3.5-inch floppy disk
• 2 Megabytes: A high-resolution photograph
• 5 Megabytes: The complete works of Shakespeare OR 30 seconds of TV-quality video
• 10 Megabytes: A minute of high-fidelity sound OR A digital chest X-ray
• 20 Megabytes: A box of floppy disks
• 50 Megabytes: A digital mammogram
• 100 Megabytes: 1 meter of shelved books OR A two-volume encyclopedic book
• 200 Megabytes: A reel of 9-track tape OR An IBM 3480 cartridge tape
• 500 Megabytes: A CD-ROM OR The hard disk of a PC

### Gigabyte (1,024 Megabytes, or 1,048,576 Kilobytes)

• 1 Gigabyte: A pickup truck filled with paper OR A symphony in high-fidelity sound OR A movie at TV quality. 1 Gigabyte could hold the contents of about 10 yards of books on a shelf.
• 2 Gigabytes: 20 meters of shelved books
• 5 Gigabytes: An 8mm Exabyte tape
• 20 Gigabytes: A high-quality audio collection of the works of Beethoven OR A VHS tape used for digital data
• 50 Gigabytes: A floor of books OR Hundreds of 9-track tapes
• 100 Gigabytes: A floor of academic journals OR A large ID-1 digital tapes.

• 1 Terabyte: An automated tape robot OR All the X-ray films in a large technological hospital OR 50,000 trees made into paper and printed.
• 1 Terabyte: 1,613 650MB CDs or 4,581,298 books.
• 1 Terabyte: 1,000 copies of the Encyclopedia Britannica.
• 2 Terabytes: An academic research library OR A cabinet full of Exabyte tapes
• 10 Terabytes: The printed collection of the US Library of Congress

### Petabyte  (1,024 Terabytes, or 1,048,576 Gigabytes)

• 1 Petabyte: 5 years of Earth Observing System (EOS) (at 46 mbps)
• 1 Petabyte: 20 million 4-door filing cabinets full of text or 500 billion pages of standard printed text.
• 2 Petabytes: All US academic research libraries.
• 20 Petabytes: Production of hard-disk drives in 1995
• 200 Petabytes: All printed material ever OR Production of digital magnetic tape in 1995

### Exabyte (1,024 Petabytes)

• An exabyte of data is created on the Internet each day in 2012 or 250 million DVDs worth of information.
• 5 Exabytes: All words ever spoken by human beings.

### Yottabyte (1,204 Zettabytes, or 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes)

• It’s equal to one septillion (1024) or, strictly, 280 bytes.
• Its name comes from the prefix ‘Yotta’ derived from the Ancient Greek οκτώ (októ), meaning “eight”, because it is equal to 1,0008
• In 2010, it would have cost \$100 trillion to make a yottabyte storage system made out of the day’s hard drives.
After ‘Yotta’, the officially recognized prefix system comes to a halt, likely because humans haven’t had the need to work with larger quantities of… anything really. There are some other measurement units, however, which go well beyond the Yotta and which are recognized by some experts in their fields. For instance, the brontobyte is 1 followed by 27 zeros and some believe will be the scale of data enabled by the internet of things (smart devices from toasters to fridges to home sensors that constantly transmit and receive data). Gegobyte is 10 to the power 30, which by now is futile to count in DVDs or anything like it.
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## In Oracle, which of the following is a logical storage area?

### In Oracle, which of the following is a logical storage area?

• audit log
• tablespace
• schema
• datafile

#### EXPLANATION

Oracle stores data logically in tablespaces and physically in datafiles associated with the corresponding tablespace.

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## What is the transfer rate of a standard USB 2.0 Device?

### What is the transfer rate of a standard USB 2.0 Device?

• 250 Mbit/s
• 480 Mbit/s
• 100 Mbit/s
• 1 Gbit/s

#### EXPLANATION

The now-aging USB 2.0 standard can theoretically transfer data at a very high 480 megabits per second (mbps), or 60 megabytes per second (MBps). That’s impressive, but not as much as the newer USB 3.0, which can handle up to 5gbps (640MBps)—over ten times as fast as the 2.0 maximum.

#### Release versions

Name Release date Maximum transfer rate Note
USB 0.7 November 11, 1994 ? Pre-release
USB 0.8 December 1994 ? Pre-release
USB 0.9 April 13, 1995 Full Speed (12 Mbit/s) Pre-release
USB 0.99 August 1995 ? Pre-release
USB 1.0-RC November 1995 ? Release Candidate
USB 1.0 January 15, 1996 Full Speed (12 Mbit/s), Low Speed (1.5 Mbit/s)
USB 1.1 August 1998 Full Speed (12 Mbit/s)[35]
USB 2.0 April 2000 High Speed (480 Mbit/s)
USB 3.0/3.1 Gen 1/3.2 Gen 1×1 November 2008 SuperSpeed USB (5 Gbit/s) Also referred to as USB 3.1 Gen 1[27] and USB 3.2 Gen 1×1
USB 3.1 Gen 2/3.2 Gen 2×1 July 2013 SuperSpeed USB 10Gbps (10 Gbit/s) Includes new USB 3.1 Gen 2[27] which is later also named USB 3.2 Gen 2×1
USB 3.2 Gen 1×2 August 2017 SuperSpeed USB 10Gbps (10 Gbit/s) Includes new USB 3.2 Gen 1×2
USB 3.2 Gen 2×2 August 2017 SuperSpeed USB 20Gbps (20 Gbit/s) Includes USB 3.2 Gen 2×2 multi-link modes[36][not in citation given]
USB 4 TBD Estimated TBA (40 Gbit/s)

#### SOURCE

https://www.pcworld.com/article/2360306/usb-3-0-speed-real-and-imagined.html
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## In Windows, if you want to format a hard drive or removable disk so it can be read and written by both Windows and Apple machines without using any 3rd party tools, you would format the disk as which of the following?

### In Windows, if you want to format a hard drive or removable disk so it can be read and written by both Windows and Apple machines without using any 3rd party tools, you would format the disk as which of the following?

• HFS
• REFS
• exFAT
• NTFS

#### EXPLANATION

Both Windows and Apple machines can read drives formatted in FAT32 and exFAT.  Apple can read NTFS but cannot write to it.

#### SOURCE

https://www.laptopmag.com/articles/format-drive-for-windows-and-mac
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## Which of these files will not fit in a 32GB flashdrive formatted as FAT32?

### Which of these files will not fit in a 32GB flashdrive formatted as FAT32?

• 10 .msi files with 1000MB each
• A .zip file with 1024MB
• 3 .tar.gz files with 5GB each
• All of them would fit just fine

#### EXPLANATION

Since your flash drive is formatted with the FAT32 file system, any file that is larger than 4GB will not be placed there. This type of a file system has a built-in limitation on the size of the files that it may contain. Although the total size of the files that you can copy to a FAT32 drive could be as large as 2TB (or the physical capacity of the drive, whichever is smaller), the size of each individual file may not exceed 4GB.

This limitation may sound silly: why would anyone design a system that would not allow for the larger files? The problem is, when the FAT32 file system was designed (that was back in the days of Windows 95), no one anticipated that we would have such large files in use today. Or, maybe the designers hoped that by the time such large files became common, the use of the FAT32 system would be replaced by more modern systems.﻿

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## Which type of RAID configuration requires minimum six drives?

### Which type of RAID configuration requires minimum six drives?

• RAID 50 (RAID 5 + 0)
• RAID 100 (RAID 10+0)
• RAID 6
• RAID 60 (RAID 6 + 0)

#### EXPLANATION

RAID 50, also called RAID 5+0, combines the straight block-level striping of RAID 0 with the distributed parity of RAID 5.[3] As a RAID 0 array striped across RAID 5 elements, minimal RAID 50 configuration requires six drives.

#### SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nested_RAID_levels
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## You need to encrypt and compress your backups before replicating them off site. Which is best practice, compress then encrypt, or encrypt then compress?

### You need to encrypt and compress your backups before replicating them off site. Which is best practice, compress then encrypt, or encrypt then compress?

• Neither!
• Doesn't matter!
• Encrypt first!
• Compress first!

#### EXPLANATION

If you encrypt the data first, it will be randomized and unintelligible by your compression application which need to compress the data in a logical format.
Compressing then encrypting is the way to go.

#### SOURCE

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4676095/when-compressing-and-encrypting-should-i-compress-first-or-encrypt-first
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## What type of RAID is RAID 2?

### What type of RAID is RAID 2?

• Byte-level striping with dedicated parity.
• A striped set from a series of mirrored drives.
• Block-level striping with dedicated parity.
• Bit-level striping with dedicated Hamming-code parity.

#### EXPLANATION

RAID 2
RAID 2 consists of bit-level striping with dedicated Hamming-code parity. All disk spindle rotation is synchronized and data is striped such that each sequential bit is on a different drive. Hamming-code parity is calculated across corresponding bits and stored on at least one parity drive. This level is of historical significance only; although it was used on some early machines (for example, the Thinking Machines CM-2), as of 2014 it is not used by any commercially available system.
RAID 2

#### SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_RAID_levels#RAID_2
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## Where is the iSCSI protocol typically used?

### Where is the iSCSI protocol typically used?

• File sharing
•  SANs (Storage Area Networks)
• Inter-site routing
• Internal drive arrays

#### EXPLANATION

iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) works on top of TCP and allows SCSI
commands to be sent over a network to iSCSI storage devices. This allows for a low cost SAN infrastructure using standard network hardware.

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## In Windows, if you want to format a hard drive or removable disk so it can be read and written by both Windows and Apple machines you would format the disk as which of the following?

### In Windows, if you want to format a hard drive or removable disk so it can be read and written by both Windows and Apple machines you would format the disk as which of the following?

• NTFS
• exFAT
• HFS
• REFS

#### EXPLANATION

Both Windows and Apple machines can read drives formatted in FAT32.  Apple can read NTFS but cannot write to it.

#### SOURCE

https://www.laptopmag.com/articles/format-drive-for-windows-and-mac
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## If you have a RAID 10 setup with four 500 GB HDDs, how much usable storage capacity will you have?

### If you have a RAID 10 setup with four 500 GB HDDs, how much usable storage capacity will you have?

• 1 TB
• 4 TB
• 2 TB
• 1.5 TB

#### EXPLANATION

RAID 10 contains two sets of mirrored drives, and each mirrored set takes two 500 GB drives to store 500 GB of data.
The data will be striped across the two sets for a total of 1 TB usable storage.
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## What is the minimum number of drives required for a non-degraded Raid 5 array?

### What is the minimum number of drives required for a non-degraded Raid 5 array?

• 2
• 4
• 5
• 3

#### EXPLANATION

RAID 5 requires 3 disks. It consists of block-level data striping with distributed parity. This means that data is striped across multiple disks with fault-tolerant parity data written to each disk. If one disk fails, the array can reconstruct the data from the parity information.
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## In computing, what is an octet? Checkmark A byte that is 8 bits A group of 8x8 bits A byte that is 80 bits A short string of coding

### In computing, what is an octet?

• A byte that is 8 bits
• A group of 8x8 bits
• A byte that is 80 bits
• A short string of coding

#### EXPLANATION

An octet is a byte, that is eight bits. This unit of digital information is often used in computing and telecommunications when the term byte might be ambiguous,
since historically there was no standard definition for the size of the byte. The usage of the old term octad(e) for 8 bits is no longer common today. (wiki)
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## How many kibibytes (KiB) are in 1 tebibyte (TiB)?

### How many kibibytes (KiB) are in 1 tebibyte (TiB)?

• 1,073,741,824 KiB
• 1,048,576 KiB
• 10,240,000,000 KiB
• 1,000,000 KiB

#### EXPLANATION

The interpretation of the older term "kilobyte" to denote 1024 bytes, conflicting with the SI definition of the prefix kilo (1000), is still common, mostly in informal computer science contexts
1 kibibyte = 1,024 bytes
1 mebibyte = 1,024 kibibytes
1 gibibyte = 1,024 mebibytes = 1,048,576 kibibytes
1 tebibyte = 1,024 gibibytes = 1,048,576 mebibytes = 1,073,741,824 kibibytes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibibyte

#### SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibibyte
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## Which of the Following is NOT a Sync Type when Syncing Files and Folders using SyncToy, FreeFileSync and other File Syncing Tools?

### Which of the Following is NOT a Sync Type when Syncing Files and Folders using SyncToy, FreeFileSync and other File Syncing Tools?

• Dedupe
• Contribute (Update)
• Sync (Two-Way Sync)
• Mirror

#### EXPLANATION

Dedupe is a Storage Technology which operates on a block level to save storage space using pointers to data blocks. It is not a file level operation.
Contribute / Update -> Updates Files from the Left Folder Path to the Right without deleting any files or folders. Renamed, Modified and New Files and Folders are added from Left to Right.
Sync (Two-Way Sync) - New items, Renames, Modifications and Deletions are synced from Left to Right and Right to Left Paths (both directions).
Mirror - Copies and Overwrites all file and folder items from the Left Path to The Right Path - creates a mirror copy from Left to Right File Paths. Useful for Backups to removable storage such as USB External Hard Drives.

#### SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_synchronization
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## In the early days of computer technology, what type of memory had to be hand made rather than by machine?

### In the early days of computer technology, what type of memory had to be hand made rather than by machine?

• Thin film memory
• EPROM
• Magnetic core memory
• Bubble Memory

#### EXPLANATION

Magnetic core memory was almost always "woven" by hand in spite of repeated attempts to automate the process. Core uses tiny magnetic beads (the cores), through which wires are threaded to write and read information.

#### SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic-core_memory
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## You need to encrypt and compress your backups before replicating them off site. Which is best practice, compress then encrypt, or encrypt then compress?

### You need to encrypt and compress your backups before replicating them off site. Which is best practice, compress then encrypt, or encrypt then compress?

• Neither!
• Encrypt first!
• Doesn't matter!
• Compress first!

#### EXPLANATION

If you encrypt the data first, it will be randomized and unintelligible by your compression application which need to compress the data in a logical format.
Compressing then encrypting is the way to go.

#### SOURCE

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4676095/when-compressing-and-encrypting-should-i-compress-first-or-encrypt-first
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## Which type of RAID configuration requires minimum six drives?

### Which type of RAID configuration requires minimum six drives?

• RAID 60 (RAID 6 + 0)
• RAID 50 (RAID 5 + 0)
• RAID 100 (RAID 10+0)
• RAID 6

#### EXPLANATION

RAID 50, also called RAID 5+0, combines the straight block-level striping of RAID 0 with the distributed parity of RAID 5.[3] As a RAID 0 array striped across RAID 5 elements, minimal RAID 50 configuration requires six drives.

#### SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nested_RAID_levels
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## What is the limiting factor that prevents older PCs from using a hard drive larger than 2.2 terabytes?

### What is the limiting factor that prevents older PCs from using a hard drive larger than 2.2 terabytes?

• GPT (GUID Partition Table)
• MBR (Master Boot Record)
• RAM (Random Access Memory)
• UEFI (Unified EFI)

#### EXPLANATION

This limit arises from the maximum size of the master boot record (MBR) partitioning method used by most personal computers. BIOS systems with MBR disks use 32-bit values to describe the starting offset and length of a partition. Due to this size limit, MBR allows a maximum disk size of approximately 2.2 TB and a maximum of four primary partitions.
UEFI supports the GUID Partition Table (GPT), a more flexible partitioning scheme. GPT disks use 64-bit values to describe partitions, allowing larger partitions. GPT also fixes other issues related to MBR (data integrity, backup tables, maximum number of partitions, ...). Using 64-bit values, GPT can handle disks of up to 9.4 x 10^21 bytes or 9.4 zettabytes (ZB).

#### SOURCE

http://www.uefi.org/sites/default/files/resources/UEFI_Drive_Partition_Limits_Fact_Sheet.pdf
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## Which of the Following is NOT a Sync Type when Syncing Files and Folders using SyncToy, FreeFileSync and other File Syncing Tools?

### Which of the Following is NOT a Sync Type when Syncing Files and Folders using SyncToy, FreeFileSync and other File Syncing Tools?

• Mirror
•  Dedupe
• Sync (Two-Way Sync)
• Contribute (Update)

#### EXPLANATION

Dedupe is a Storage Technology which operates on a block level to save storage space using pointers to data blocks. It is not a file level operation.
Contribute / Update -> Updates Files from the Left Folder Path to the Right without deleting any files or folders. Renamed, Modified and New Files and Folders are added from Left to Right.
Sync (Two-Way Sync) - New items, Renames, Modifications and Deletions are synced from Left to Right and Right to Left Paths (both directions).
Mirror - Copies and Overwrites all file and folder items from the Left Path to The Right Path - creates a mirror copy from Left to Right File Paths. Useful for Backups to removable storage such as USB External Hard Drives.

#### SOURCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_synchronization
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